Labeling Dictionary

Labeling systems dictionary

Labeling Dictionary

Numeric (#)

21 CFR Part 11
Title 21 CFR Part 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations deals with the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines on electronic records and electronic signatures (ERES).
2D Data Matrix code
See Data Matrix code.


A/D Converter (A/D or ADC)
Short for analog-to-digital converter. Converts real-world analog signals into a digital format that can be processed by a computer.
Absolute move
1) A move to a specified absolute position relative to a fixed zero position as a reference point. 2) Contrasted with incremental move.
Absolute position
1) Position referenced to a fixed zero position. 2) Contrasted with incremental position.
Absolute pressure transducer
A transducer that has an internal reference chamber sealed at or close to 0 psia (full vacuum) and normally provides increasing output voltage for increases in pressure.
The first derivative of velocity with respect to time. Units expressed in "g".
A transducer which converts mechanical motion into an electrical signal that is proportional to the acceleration value of the motion.
The final phase of custom automation equipment validation that includes the final series of performance runs made at a buyer's facility before final sign-off of the project and final documentation review. Also see Factory Acceptance Test.
Acceptance sampling
Predetermined rules for choosing and analyzing samples of production or purchased material based on third-party agreements or previous experience with product, equipment, date, vendor or other characteristics.
Accumulation conveyor
Any conveyor designed to permit accumulation of packages, objects, or carriers. May be roller, live roller, roller slat, belt, vibrating, power-and-free, or tow conveyors. See Minimum pressure accumulation conveyor and Zero pressure accumulation conveyor.
The combined error of nonlinearity, repeatability, and hysteresis expressed as a percent of full scale output.
Acquisition time
This term relates to sampling A/Ds which utilize a track/hold amplifier on the input to acquire and hold the analog input signal. Acquisition time is the time required by the T/H amplifier to settle to its final value after it is placed in the track module.
Actual cost
The real cost associated with purchasing materials and services, and paying internal personnel. A standard cost system tracks actual usage, as defined by hours or units consumed, based on a standard value, to calculate and track variances versus the standard hours or units; an actual cost system (often used in to-order environments) attempts to assign the true cost of every purchase, material issue and labor activity to jobs and products.
In a closed-loop control system, that part of the final control element that translates the control signal into action by the control device.
An identification (number, name, or label) that uniquely identifies a computer register, memory location, or storage device.
Adjustable speed
The concept of varying the speed of a motor, either manually or automatically. The desired operating speed (set speed) is relatively constant regardless of load.
The act of assigning child-level serial numbers (on individual units) to a unique serial number at the parent level (i.e. case), thus creating an electronic association between the children and the parent.
Alphanumeric code
An alphanumeric code is a series of letters and numbers (hence the name) which are written in a form that can be processed by a computer.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The institute that co-ordinates the development of standards and guidelines used in the United States. ANSI is the only United States representative to the International Standards Organization.
A unit used to define the rate of flow of electricity (current) in a circuit.
A device which draws power from a source other than the input signal and which produces as an output an enlarged reproduction of the essential features of its input.
Analog circuit
A circuit in which the signal can vary continuously between specified limits.
Analog input module
An I/O module that contains circuits that convert analog dc input signals to digital values that can be manipulated by the processor. By implication, these analog inputs are usually direct (i.e., a data table value directly reflects the analog signal value).
Analog output module
An I/O module that contains circuits that output an analog dc signal proportional to a digital value transferred to the module from the processor. By implication, these analog outputs are usually direct (i.e., a data table value directly controls the analog signal value).
Analog signal
Any form of data transmission where the pneumatic, mechanical, or electrical energy signal is varied in direct proportion to the intensity of the physical quantity, property, or condition represented.
A counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness. Drug manufacturers and distributors are increasingly investing in countermeasures, such as traceability and authentication technologies, to try to minimise the impact of counterfeit drugs.
A structured set of protocols implementing the functions of the system.
Abbreviation for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a binary character code used to represent a character in a computer. It consists of 128 seven-bit codes for upper and lower case letters, numbers, punctuation, and special communication control characters.
Abbreviation for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME is the premier professional membership organization for more than 127,000 mechanical engineers and associated members worldwide
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods.
Assembly robots
A mechanical device that uses automation to add interchangeable parts to a product in a sequential manner to create a finished product.
ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Asynchronous assembly systems
An assembly system where various assembly steps are not occurring at the same time, or have different timing requirements, requiring individual start/stop signals.
Authorized work
1) Production orders at a given work center or line that have been released and scheduled; production of other items or quantities is considered unscheduled and may not be included in incentive programs 2) Vendor production that occurs in a given time frame or zone based on agreement with the customer that allows adding labor value to vendor raw materials.
Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS)
A combination of equipment and controls which handles, stores, and retrieves materials with precision, accuracy, and speed under a defined degree of automation.
Automated test equipment (ATE)
Test systems integrated into the production process that operate and report without human intervention.
Automatic mode
The state when the equipment begins self-moving operations.
Automatic operation
The equipment executes the programmed jobs without worker involvement.
An automatic operation and control of machinery or processes by devices, such as robots that can make and execute decisions without human intervention. The principal feature of such devices is their use of self-correcting control systems that employ feedback, i.e. use part of their output to control their input. Once the automated process is set up, human participation in the manufacturing process involves little more than maintenance and repair of the equipment. In a typical automated manufacturing process, the feeding in of materials, the machine operation, the transfers from one machine to another, the final assembly, the removal, and the packing are all done automatically. At various stages in the operation are inspection devices that reject substandard products and adjust the machinery to correct any malfunction.
Axial load
A load applied along or parallel to and concentric with the primary axis.
Any movable part of a machine or system that requires controlled motion. Several axes of motion can be combined in a coordinated multi-axis system.

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